From Atlanta to Africa: Coca-Cola’s Globalization

From Atlanta to Africa:  Coca-Cola’s Globalization

Coca-Cola

Since the birth of Coca-Cola in 1886, Coca-Cola has grown from small beginnings in Atlanta to being the World’s most valuable brand, being distributed in over 200 countries[1].  In this essay I will outline the growth and expansion of Coca-Cola in the United States, as well as the brand’s globalization. I will look to demonstrate how Coca-Cola’s globalization affected its advertising, and show how Coca-Cola’s synonymy with leisure, in particular American leisure, was exported and how this changed as the advertising and marketing strategies of the company change to take advantage of different business environments. Due to the differing conditions of business on different continents, I will look to demonstrate how Coca-Cola operates, in terms of distributing their products and their dealings with franchise holders in countries that do not have the same infrastructure as a developed country, as well as how they react to differing political regimes. Africa is becoming a great place for companies to seek out business opportunities, due to the growing number of young people at the working age, and a subsequent growth in dispensable income. I will look in this essay to show how Coca-Cola are manipulating these developments, and how they will boost Coca-Cola’s expansion into its final frontier on its search for new sources of income.

Coca-Cola has become the World’s largest brand, but while the company has enjoyed impressive growth around the world, the roots of Coca-Cola remain firmly in Atlanta. Coca-Cola has always remained true to its roots as an American product, intrinsically linked with the comfort and leisure that has been related to the lifestyle of an American.  Even though Ernest Woodruff moved the company moved to Delaware, Coca-Cola still remained a ‘Southern’ product, the advertising focused upon leisure, with advertisements showing people relaxing and doing leisure activities that did not chime with an urban lifestyle[2].

Due to reasons of marketing, the company does not export specific ideals from the American South, as this would could affect relevance and popularity, but rather it exports the idea of leisure that was so prevalent in the time of the company’s creation, manipulating itself to the local market.  The formula for Coca-Cola was created by John Pemberton in 1886, and was bought by Asa Chandler, who went on to incorporate the Coca-Cola Company in 1892. Candler, an employee of Pemberton, bought the formula for the medical tonic known as Coca-Cola and expanded the company greatly during his time in charge. Candler brought brand imagery to the fore in Coca-Cola and was meticulous about the image he wanted to give of his company to consumers, to the extent that he was strict concerning the private lives of his salesmen. After firmly establishing Coca-Cola, Candler negotiated a deal to sell Coca-Cola to Ernest Woodruff in 1919, and passed on control of the company to his son Robert in 1923. When Robert took over the Company, he inherited a company with a strong brand image with a dedicated consumer base. Robert Woodruff was in control of the Company for almost 50 years, and arguably nobody shaped Coca-Cola Company that the modern day consumer knows as much as him, as he began the worldwide spread of Coca-Cola though Coca-Cola export. Coca-Cola expanded terrifically in America, seeing off many competitors to become the largest soft drink producer in the United States. Coca-Cola began to expand, reaching Africa in 1929, but it was the Second World War, which really pushed forward the company’s expansion.

Coca-Cola expanded largely after the Second World War. Coca-Cola managed to secure the position the official drink of the American G.I. with the company sending what the company called ‘Technical Observers’ to the spheres of war, and wherever an American Soldier went, a Coca-Cola followed. Many of these Technical Observers identified markets for Coca-Cola in Europe, recognizing the potential for expansion. As a result, Coca-Cola did not leave Europe after the Second World War, with many of the observers staying across the Atlantic to open bottling plants. As a result of this, the Company faced the challenge of advertising for different countries, and for this local knowledge was essential. Many countries were not welcoming to Coca-Cola, with France being amongst the most hostile, due to the prevalence of communists and also the perceived cultural threat, linked to an economic threat on the wine industry. The French feared Americanization, and called the spread of Coca-Cola Coca-Colonization. Despite the initial uneasiness, Coca-Cola has managed a hugely successful transition into Europe. The same could easily be said for Africa.

Coca-Cola has proven to be flexible and innovative around the world, adapting to local markets and new eras without distorting its brand image. The Coca-Cola Company sells the concentrated syrup, containing the secret formula, to bottling companies, who then add carbonated water and bottle the product before distributing and selling. The company has control to invest in bottling plants as they see fit, as well as being able to withdraw if the bottler isn’t meeting the company’s high standards. Coca-Cola provides a large amount of resources for their franchises and those who sell their product so that they can maximise their potential, no matter what the environment. Murray Eldred suggests a negative way in which Coca-Cola was traditionally Southern, describing Coca-Cola at its origins as a company that reflected southern ideals of race. The Coca-Cola Company was white run, and Eldred claims that they did not fully appreciate “Black America” and didn’t factor African Americans into labour relations or marketing[3].  This heavily contrasts with modern Coca-Cola, where locals of all races are used for their knowledge of their local market, with many ethnic Africans filling management positions within Coca-Cola’s African systems. This knowledge of the local market allows Coca-Cola to adapt and gain valuable context for their marketing campaigns.

Coca-Cola’s efforts in Africa say a lot about the size and economic strength of the company. While a cool drink that has often endorsed itself as the ‘pause that refreshes’ would seemingly be successful in Africa, the continent presents many problems for large-scale business, due to the varying levels of infrastructure and poverty, along with unstable political conditions and a lot of war. Duane Stanford suggests that Coca-Cola’s extensive investment in Africa “is the sign of a healthy company…an empire so mature that it must, for its last great push, reach into many of the most war torn and impoverished countries on earth”[4]. Coca-Cola’s growth in Europe and America has stagnated in recent years and while still a powerful brand, it is now reaching into the developing nations to achieve the growth that the company wants to achieve. Coca-Cola has been successful within Africa since its arrival in 1929, and is now Africa’s largest employer with 65,000 employees and 160 bottling plants[5]. The standard of quality amongst bottlers is high, and even within the Coca-Cola brand, bottlers such as Coca-Cola Fortune (the bottling company responsible for 9 African countries, including South Africa) has achieved recognition, winning the Bottler of the year award in 2008. Coca-Cola has the right to check its bottlers regularly to ensure that they are up to the standard that the company expects, having the power to close them down if they do not meet expectations. For example, Coca-Cola Fortune undergoes auditing and quality checks. Phil Roux, the Managing Director of Coca-Cola Fortune suggests the thoroughness of the parent company and their high standards, “Admittedly, we don’t always get it right, but that’s because the global standards set by the Coca-Cola Company are hugely stringent”[6]. This suggests American values of management have been brought into Africa to make sure that Coca-Cola fulfills its potential.

In Africa, there are problems in parts of the continent with roads and infrastructure, and Coca-Cola have had to be inventive to be able to fulfill Muhtar Kent’s declaration that Coca-Cola will “go to every town, every village, every community, every township”[7]. Distribution centres have been set up around villages and towns, so that the bottlers can easily distribute Coca-Cola. Often distributed in small amounts due to the financial positions of vendors, distributors often take orders in person before delivering cases of Coca-Cola products by hand. To use an example of how Coca-Cola has inventively adapted to rural Africa, salespeople in some regions travel by canoe to deliver Coca-Cola upriver. While the Coca-Cola Company’s ability to adapt has helped boost its sales, new investment on infrastructure and connecting Africa, provided by stronger African economies, will help increase Coca-Cola’s business. A bottler in the Democratic Republic of Congo found business tripled when a new 200km road was built in the northern region of the country[8]. This suggests that as Africa continues to improve and begins emerging, Coca-Cola will be reaping the rewards. So to aid their growth into the African market, Coca-Cola has introduced schemes to encourage people to sell Coca-Cola, to get the company’s name and image circulated, and gives the vendor benefits for selling their wares. An example of this is in Kenya, where the bottlers award status, the highest being ‘Gold Status’ to the vendors who can sell a lot of product[9]. Ahmet Bozer, head of the divisions for Eurasia and Africa, states that Coca-Cola “ place coolers in the market and invest in people, putting feet on the street”. This is suggestive of how the Coca-Cola Company gives a support to its vendors, investing people by paying for shop signs and coolers for the product. They also adapt the products for the technology they provide vendors, with coolers being fitted with a tracking system in Africa due to a high crime rate, as well as solar-paneled coolers. In addition to these innovations with equipment, Coca-Cola provides resources for the vendor to learn about stocktaking, and shop presentation. Competition in Africa for business is fierce, and companies aggressively court small vendors. Bottlers invest in people by extending credit to them so that they can buy stock, and giving them a limited amount of time to pay back the company for the stock. Also new technology has helped with distribution, with vendors being able to send orders to the distribution centres, cutting down on costs and making distribution centres more efficient. In Africa bottlers cannot afford the expensive plastic bottles that are so common in Europe and the United States, so another nimble initiative by Coca-Cola is that the glass bottles that are sold in stores are handed back after the bottle is finished, and recycled seventy times, to cut costs for the consumer and the producer. The customer pays only for the liquid in the bottle, ensuring that Coca Cola can reach an economically diverse range of customers.

This is highly relevant, as many Africans remain devastatingly poor, but there has been much improvement in the African economy, and a middle class in Africa is emerging. In 2000, 59 million African households earned at least 5,000 US dollars a year, compared to 80 million households in 2010[10].  $5,000 is what is accepted to be the amount of income that people begin to spend money on items such as consumer products. The rise of these households, with more income to spend on leisure items such as Coca-Cola is highly positive for Coca-Cola’s prospects in Africa. In addition to this, Africa has the world’s fastest-growing population and is expected to account for more than 40 percent of global population growth to 2030[11]. There is also greater Urbanization in Africa, with 40% of all Africans now living in cities, with this number expected to rise to 50% by 2030[12]. This means that consumers will be easier to reach, in terms of distribution of the product and in terms of advertising.

In a report published in October 2010 by McKinsey, a global management consulting firm, a panel of business leaders discuss proposals for African business. Their findings and conclusions are highly positive for Africans. This source is particularly useful for showing that business leaders in Africa believe in Africa as a good place for multinational companies to do business. Amongst those on the panel of experts is Bill Egbe, the President of Coca-Cola South Africa. Egbe admits that there are challenges presented to Coca-Cola and its bottling franchises, but that they carefully take these problems into account when designing business models. Egbe discusses the importance of developing brand recognition through, claiming “To have a license to operate in Africa, they (multi-national corporations) have to earn that license, not from the governments but from the consumers. And that license means you are doing things that increase socio-economic development”[13].  This suggests that Coca-Cola want to improve the lives of their consumers, in that Coca-Cola wants customers to improve their standard of living, be it through creating jobs opening plants, giving their consumers the chance to earn new skills or providing business opportunities so that communities can grow. This would give the customer more dispensable income, which could then be spent on commodities, like Coca-Cola, or other drinks from its range. Coca-Cola recognises that to reach high amounts of consumers and build a strong network throughout the continent, Africa needs to develop socio-economically.  The CEO of Coca-Cola, Muhtar Kent, seconds Bill Egbe’s attitude to the importance of community. When asked in an interview in January 2011 what the role of business in developing countries, Kent replies, “generating economic development and job opportunities for communities is critically important, so too is respecting local cultures..as the world becomes more integrated economically and socially we are seeing equally strong reassertion of local value and culture. Businesses need to do our part, and become a part of the fabric of the community”[14]. This suggests that due these local cultural differences, Coca-Cola is prepared to adapt its business practices and equally importantly, their advertising if the brand is to succeed in Africa.

Advertising has always been a key part of the Coca-Cola Company; today Coca-Cola spends over 180 million dollars a year on advertisements[15]. Coca-Cola has always spent this money in order to be innovative and effective, even in the early days of the company. Under Robert Woodruff, the company took to the emerging phenomenon of the Radio to advertise Coca-Cola, and this move to keep on top of trends in technology is something that Coca-Cola has consistently done from its origins, moving into radio and a brief, unsuccessful stint in television. This shows just how determined Coca-Cola is to implant itself into the free time of consumers.

Coca-Cola, as the main product of the company, cannot be changed. While variations such as Diet Coke and Cherry Coke have emerged, Coca-Cola cannot be changed, as it weds the company to the past and the sentiment of the company. This is illustrated by the introduction of New Coke by Robert Goizueta in 1985. While doing well in taste tests, when it was introduced it was not at all popular, and many people demanded their original Coca-Cola back. The drop in share price shortly after the introduction new Coke suggests the importance of the original product, as well as the resurgence of Coca-Cola Company stock after the reversal to bring back the original Coca-Cola[16]. The success of the taste tests, in comparison with the public reception of New Coke, suggests it is more than the liquid inside the bottle that is responsible for Coca-Cola’s success, but also the sentiment that has become attached with the product over the years. A Coca-Cola executive realised the company’s mistake, as well as Coca-Cola’s synonymy with America saying that New Coke was “like trying to make the flag prettier”[17].

Coca-Cola has to diversify its advertising for the African continent, but also for different regions within Africa, due to different preferences. A report on the rise of African consumerism suggests that North Africans express a strong desire for international brands rather than local ones, with more than 60 percent agreeing with the statement “international brands are more fashionable than local brands”. Sub-Saharan Africans, on the other hand, are far more accepting of local brands. In Nigeria, for example, only 11 percent agreed with the statement above, while in South Africa, the proportion was 12 percent[18].  As Ahmet Bozer, the head of the Coca-Cola divisions for Eurasia and Africa says, “the key for international companies is finding the right mix of global and local in their operations. The Coca-Cola brand is global, but it must be locally relevant”, and also states how Coca-Cola has strategic plans for each market[19]. This combination of selling a global, international brand, while also cornering the local markets through the takeover of locally relevant goods makes Coca-Cola successful in Africa. Coca-Cola bottlers invest in and sell locally favoured products that are popular, not just Coca-Cola. Interestingly it is not only the differing style choices that Coca-Cola caters to, but also the political environment of a country that is considered during advertising.  Ahmet Bozer suggests that Coca-Cola marketing teams, during the Arab Spring in Egypt “were able to tap into the psyche of the public, we understood that despite the uncertainty they were going through they wanted a bright future”[20]. This chimes with Coca-Cola’s emphasis on presenting a bright future in its advertising campaigns during the Arab Spring, with the slogan for the advertising campaign being “make tomorrow better”, in front of a picture of young people peeling back an old crumbled wall to reveal a shining city landscape, whilst holding a bottle of Coca-Cola[21]. This is a good example of how Coca-Cola uses the soft sell technique to advertise, linking itself with a relevant emotion to its consumer base, marketing which Frederick Allen calls “a combination of gentle charm, and mercenary technique”[22]. Coca-Cola may change its advertisements but it does not change its techniques, but merely adapts their American marketing to local markets. They aim to give what While Coca-Cola has made use of locally relevant advertising to strengthen its brand image and increase sales. However Coca-Cola also heavily utilizes events that are relevant to a global audience.  The Olympics is one of the best examples of this. An event watched globally, the Olympics have allowed Coca-Cola to solidify a powerful association with sport and its core values of leisure and progress to a worldwide audience, while advertising its products since the company’s first affiliation with the games in 1928.   More relevant to Africa, the recent FIFA World Cup in South Africa 2010 provided Coca-Cola an opportunity to advertise itself in Africa and worldwide.

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In the modern day, Coca-Cola continues to embrace new means of advertising, and has been undergoing a campaign to expand the online presence of the company to the vast amount of online consumers by means of campaigns to promote only activity, an example of one of these examples being Coca-Cola Music, which allows users to listen and download music online, while be exposed to Coca-Cola advertising. However in Africa, where many are too poor to afford technologies such as radio or television, and with little access to the Internet, the company in Africa depends on word of mouth and visual advertising to develop a brand image.  Repetition and placement of advertisements was key in placing Coca-Cola in the American landscape, and in Africa this is no different. The Coca-Cola Company invests in spreading its name everywhere. The Bottling companies hire artists to push forward their advertising. Private houses, street signs, shop signs are often painted red at the expense of the company in an attempt to grab a foothold in the African market. Coca-Cola often extensively advertises in the poorest areas, with their modern colorful signs contrasting with the grim backgrounds upon which they are placed[23].

Phil Roux, the Managing Director of Coca-Cola Fortune, holds a similar line to Muhtar Kent and Bill Egbe concerning community investment, and states “This bottling firm is also dedicated to driving locally relevant, sustainable projects that give rise to economic opportunities, improve the quality of life and foster goodwill within the surrounding communities”[24]. Coca-Cola heavily involves themselves within the community in Africa, and provides capital to help build projects that will sustain and help communities survive. They involve themselves with local projects designed to give people in the poorest areas access to bathrooms and clean water pumps. This provides Coca-Cola access to the poorest people on the continent, and those people seeing a company help them lends to build a strong consumer-producer link, and a strong brand recognition for Coca-Cola and its products. This shows in results of a brand survey conducted by Mail and Guardian, a South African newspaper, where Coca-Cola were voted third in the poll for which company was doing most to uplift communities[25]. Coca-Cola has also launched the Coca-Cola African Foundation in 2001, to help fight a pandemic of the HIV/AIDS virus, as well as to show its commitment to bettering conditions in Africa. Coca-Cola financially invests in four areas which it considers key to aiding Africans: water, health, education and, most interestingly, entrepreneurship. This includes providing financial aid for public health problems such as AIDS/HIV and Malaria, and giving scholarships for promising African’s to study in America. Entrepreneurship is the least important in terms of Africa’s health needs, but due to declining fertility rates, it is the working-age population that will have the highest growth rate in Africa in the coming years. Africans will need to create jobs if they are to stave off unemployment. Coca-Cola realizes that a greater amount of entrepreneurs will create more business opportunities for the company, as well as more money in the community to be spent on consumer products such as Coca-Cola.  But as the popularity of Coca-Cola will rise due to these developments in African economy, so will questions about why it is so popular.

Coca-Cola has almost continually been embroiled by speculation about the effects of its contents on its consumers. Coca-Cola has been able to manoeuvre through these difficulties, however Coca-Cola has had to fight legal battles against claims of harmful ingredients and of trademark. A popular addiction following the Civil War, cocaine was originally present in Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola started as a tonic designed to relieve pain, but it changed under Candler to become a soft drink rather than a tonic. Under pressure from claims that the cocaine present in Coca-Cola was affecting its consumers, Candler refined the formula until the trace elements of Cocaine,that had been present from the coca leaf that was used in the syrup were eliminated.  Another problem that found its way into the courtroom was the Caffeine that Coca-Cola contains. While still high in caffeine today, Coca-Cola contained four times the amount of Caffeine when it was created than it does now[26].  Fortunately for Coca-Cola, Africa has often had larger issues to deal with than the health benefits or detriments of a soft drink, such as famine, unstable political regimes and war. Africa for the large part shows less concern over calorie intake than the consumer cultures in the United States and Europe, the more pressing concern is that there may not be enough calories in their diet. This lack of concern over health foods is a definite advantage for Coca-Cola in the African market compared to more developed nations. However this could be changing as Africa begins to develop. As suggested by research conducted by theWorld health Organisation, there has been an increase in Child Obesity. This is alarming considering the food and aid appeals for Africa that so often appear on the television[27].  Between 2002 and 2004 there was an over double increase in mortality due to diabetes in Nigeria, going from 14, 201 deaths in 2002 to 32,158 in 2004[28]. This increase is comparable to the more developed South Africa, with mortalities due to diabetes increasing from 12, 507 deaths in 2002 to 23, 303 in 2004[29]. Coca-Cola, in the meantime is escaping popular discontent caused by links to these growing issues. As the continent begins to develop, and people have more money to spend on fast food items and soft drinks, health problems such as obesity and diabetes in Africa could also further develop, and this could be a future problem for the Coca-Cola Company.

Coca-Cola, in the public mind, has been more closely associated than any other brand with the United States and, subsequently, democracy. Robert Woodruff himself suggests Coca-Cola’s link with America, claiming that “every bottle is the essence of democracy”[30]. Murray Eldred suggests that this is ironic due to the political regimes that Coca-Cola has dealt with, and continues to deal with today, many of which are quite repressive[31].  Coca-Cola survived under Nazi Germany, and Franco’s Spain. As Eldred suggests, Coca-Cola “has always worked for a seat at the top table”[32], and networking with powerful people has always been a part of Coca-Cola’s strategy. The president of Coca-Cola arranges meetings with politicians, regardless of if he needs something from them, and this constant networking is useful for Coca-Cola to put them on a close level with political leaders, and when they seek permission to invest in projects on the continent such as new bottling plants. Jacob Zuma, The President of South Africa met Muhtar Kent, the current President of Coca-Cola, during the FIFA football World Cup in South Africa. To take time out from such an important event for the country to spend an afternoon with the president of Coca-Cola suggests just how important African countries consider Coca-Cola. However, political instability and war complicates the building and supplying of factories, as well as transportation. Coca-Cola supplies the Sudan with Coca-Cola and has bottling plants there, but the American government does not allow the company to offer the Sudanese bottlers the same resources and support to help with sales as they would with Coca-Cola merchants in other parts of the Continent. The instability of Zimbabwe under Robert Mugabe meant that in 2006 Coca-Cola supplies ran out in the country, the first time this had happened in over 30 years[33].  The most recent African politician to be linked with Coca-Cola is King Mswati of Swaziland, with the company being put in a difficult situation by claims that the taxes the Coca-Cola Company pays not reaching the common Swazi, with public opinion pushing Coca-Cola to support the pro-democracy movement. This suggests that Coca-Cola’s importance to African economies makes it a political force. Coca-Cola has not stopped operations in Swaziland, Sherree Shereni, a spokesperson for Coca-Cola, attempts to explain the company’s position, suggesting that  “Coca-Cola, like any other taxpayer, does not determine what the taxes paid to the governments of countries in which it does business are used for. This is the statutory prerogative of the governments themselves.”[34].

Coca-Cola retains is synonymy with America, but Coca-Cola is a truly global brand, and as Africa suggests, it is the Coca-Cola Company’s use of local initiative that makes them so successful as a brand around the world. Coca-Cola adapted to reach remote areas of a quickly developing continent, by means of different approaches to sales, distribution and product control. Coca-Cola has been awarded large political significance due to its strong economic position, as well as the company’s synonymy with American ideals, and countries welcome the company with open arms. While a Coca-Cola has received a quasi-political status, they have no accountability for a countries political structure and can adapt to any regime, an example of the company’s versatility. Once Coca-Cola has access into a country, it tailors it’s advertising ingeniously to communicate with the local people. Coca-Cola has managed to link itself as a brand to sentiment, which can easily be changed and translated to cultural contexts, allowing the product, as an American consumer good, to transcend these differences. Coca-Cola’s large financial investment into community and aid programmes, especially strong in Africa, have only strengthened its brand value and ensured a consumer base. Declining fertility rates will lead to a younger population and the progressive economic development of Africa will lead to a more prevalent middle class, with money to spend on items such as Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola’s keen eye to spot Africa as a developing market for their products, as well the company’s effective, dense advertising has helped the Coca-Cola Company in Atlanta spread into Africa. With a rise of 12% in African sales in 2012, signs are good for the world’s most successful brand, and Coca-Cola’s African frontier is rapidly diminishing[35].

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[2] Images of 1920s Coca-Cola advertisements showing leisure and rural life http://www.vintageadbrowser.com/coke-ads-1920s

[3] Eldred, Murray, The Emperors of Coca-Cola, lulu.com (2003) pg. 5

[4]Stanford, Duane, Africa: Coke’s Last Frontier, Bloomberg Business Week magazine October 2010 http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/10_45/b4202054144294.htm

[6] Farnell, Chris, Coca-Cola Fortune: The Leading Brand

http://www.fooddigital.com/company-reports/coca-cola-fortune

[12]Can Africa Continue to Grow? A panel of regional business leaders discusses its prospects, August 2010  https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Can_Africa_continue_to_grow_2659

[13]Can Africa Continue to Grow? A panel of regional business leaders discusses its prospects, August 2010 https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Can_Africa_continue_to_grow_2659

[14] Interview with Muhtar Kent Jan 2011 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yWzq_BJQfHM

[15] Gieryn, Thomas. Science and Coca-Cola, Science & Technology Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Spring, 1987), pp. 12-21+31

[17] Allen, Frederick. Secret Formula: How Brilliant Marketing and Relentless Salesmanship Made Coca-Cola the Best Known Product in the World. Harper Perennial, New York (1995) pg 17

[22] Allen, Frederick. Pg. 207

[23] Image showing Coca-Cola advertising on slum housing http://www.worldchanging.com/2698611499_042ee16c13.jpg

[24] Farnell, Chris, Coca-Cola Fortune: The Leading Brand

http://www.fooddigital.com/company-reports/coca-cola-fortune

[25] Mokopanele, Thabang, Coca-Cola dominates in Brand Survey, Mail &Guardian, 20 Sep 2004 http://mg.co.za/article/2004-09-20-cocacola-dominates-in-brand-survey

[26] Allen, Frederick. Pg. 28

[30] Kuisel, Richard F. Coca-Cola and the Cold War: The French Face Americanization, 1948-1953, French Historical Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring, 1991), pp. 98

[31] Eldred, Murray, pg. 1

[32] Eldred, Murray, pg. 6

[33] Zimbabwe Coca-Cola Stocks Dry Up, bbc.co.uk 23rd March 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4836378.stm

[34] Coca-Cola Accused of Propping up King Mswati III, Mail & Guardian, 3rd, January 2012

http://mg.co.za/article/2012-01-03-cocacola-accused-of-propping-up-king-mswati-iii

[35] Coca-Cola Profits Beat Expectations, The Guardian online, guardian.co.uk Wednesday 18 July 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/jul/18/coca-cola-profits-beat-expectations

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